Action planning

see Plan of operations



In LogFrame planning, a term used to describe what the staff of a project does (in terms of deliberate efforts/measures) in order to achieve the project outputs. The activities form part of the hierarchically arranged objectives in a project planning matrix (PPM). In a Plan of Operations sub-activities appear as smaller, more detailed tasks/ actions to be carried out as part of those activities listed in the project planning matrix (PPM).

Actor constellation

see Participants


A mass or cluster of urban settlements growing (or having grown) together, associated with high population density, high degree of industrialisation (and respective pollution), high prices, especially for real estate.

Agropolitan development

The concept of agropolitan development was originally developed and applied in densely populated rural areas in Asia in the late 1970s. It represented an attempt to transfer the basic needs concept to rural regional planning. A close interlinking of agricultural and small scale industrial (labour intensive) activities is recommended, primarily oriented toward local demand.


see Development co-operation

Alternatives analysis

An analysis of alternatives is a systematic procedure used to search for and decide on problem solutions. It is used during the project design process for arriving at a decision on the best ways and means of solving a problem or of achieving goals. Alternatives are analysed using criteria relevant to a situation. Alternatives analysis makes use of prioritisation, enabling comparison of various strategies using qualitative and quantitative criteria. Techniques such as cost-benefit analysis and utilities analysis may also be used in alternatives analysis.

see also Prioritisation


The cultivation of freshwater and marine resources (both animal and plant) for human consumption.

Aspirations analysis

see Objectives analysis


A term used in LogFrame planning to describe risks or major conditions (frame conditions) or off-project factors which are outside the direct control of a development project or -programme, but which are so important that they will have to be met or have to hold true if the project or programme is to achieve its objectives. Analysing and specifying assumptions represents an attempt to predict, minimise and manage risks. If important assumptions are very unlikely to hold true, they are referred to as "killer-assumptions"; the project must then be redesigned to remove the "killers".

see also Frame conditions

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Basic needs

Fundamental human needs, lack of which results in people living in a state of poverty. The needs are variously defined by development practitioners in dialogue with different development agencies, and range from subsistence needs (satisfied by food, water, shelter) to non-material needs (e.g. for identity, freedom, etc.). In contrast to modernisation and growth theories the basic needs concept promotes a "self-centred" development which leads to mass integration, self-reliance and creative mobilisation.

see also Deficiencies


Those who enjoy the benefits or experience the impact of a development project or -programme. Beneficiaries are part of target groups. In LogFrame planning, the beneficiaries and intended impact are defined in the goal and purpose statement of the objectives listed in the project planning matrix (PPM).

Bottom-up planning

A planning paradigm oriented towards people's goals, based on people's knowledge.

see also Top-down planning


A technique of exploring a problem or issue, often in a workshop situation led by a facilitator, by inviting spontaneous ideas about it. These may be collected and documented, using visualisation techniques.

Break-even point analysis

A tool to determine the necessary minimum scale of operation for a business to be profitable/successful. The break-even point indicates the level of production from which point on production starts to be (at least) cost-covering at given market prices and production methods ("breaking-even" means revenues equal costs). Calculating the break-even point assists in avoiding investments which run into a loss.


The total amount of money allocated for a specific purpose (e.g. a development project or -programme) during a specific period; in business it additionally includes the respective expected income.

see Plan of Operations (PlanOps)

Business plan

see Plan of operations

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Capacity building

A recent (fashionable) development term arising from experiences with structural adjustment programmes. It relates to the volume and ability of individuals, organisations and societal institutions to stimulate and implement developmental tasks. In each case it has to be specified whose capacities need to be built for what in which way.

See also Institutional development


The stock of goods used in production, which have themselves been produced. Fixed capital refers to durable goods such as buildings, plant and machinery, circulating capital refers to raw materials and semi-finished goods, components which are used up rapidly.

Capital intensity

An indicator of the technological level of the economy (or of a branch of industry, or of a company), expressed as the stock of means of production per employee. The capital inputs are seen in relation to the number of employees. Clearly to be differentiated from the measures of economic feasibility as in capital productivity and the capital-output ratio.

Capital-output ratio

The ratio between capital stock (of a company, industry, or economy) over a period, and increase in output (or gross domestic product) over that period, is called the capital-output ratio. It indicates how many units of capital have to be invested on average in order to obtain one product unit.

Capital productivity

Capital productivity is a measure of economic feasibility: it tells us about the efficiency of the utilisation of the stock of means of production. The gross domestic product (GDP) is seen in relation to the value of the entire stock of permanent means of production, the capital stock.

Whereas labour productivity provides information about the technological level of an economy, capital productivity concerns more the efficiency of the economic activity at a given technological level. This is determined by the degree of utilisation of the means of production (utilisation of capacity), the skill of manpower in handling the means of production, and by the type of organisation of the work process. It can be just as high in countries with a low level of technology, owing to the correspondingly small inputs of funds there, as it is in high-technology economies.

see also Entrepreneurial capital

Capital stock

The entire stock of the permanent means of production (in a company, industry, or economy). In terms of economic feasibility the capital stock is equated with permanent means of production (i.e. which can be used for more than one year).

Centre-periphery model

In 1957 the development theoretician G. Myrdal fundamentally questioned the validity of neo-classic economic theory for underdeveloped regions (on a global as well as a regional scale) and proposed a centre-periphery-model as an alternative concept. He argued that the integration of underdeveloped regions into the economic system of highly developed regions via the market mechanism will lead to an aggravation of development disparities. During the prevalence of modernisation and growth theories in the 1960s this theory remained a popular outsider's position without being formulated as a specific strategy. With the dissemination of dependency theories during the 1970s and the basic needs concept proclaimed by the United Nations in the 1970s, did Myrdal's model lead to a paradigm change in development thinking.

Central places theory

Term developed in 1933 by a German geographer, Christaller. His theory, which is seen in the context of modernisation and growth theories, deals with decisions on the location of public and private institutions. The theory of central places aims to explain the choice of location by private services; and for the purpose of government interventions it focuses on decisions on the optimum location (concerning supply of services to the population and minimising costs).

Civil society

Civil society, also called the "third sector" (the market and the state form the other two sectors) is the force inside a society which is closely connected with voluntary coalitions and the power to fight for people's rights, democracy and liberty (people's initiatives, associations, unionism, corporations, etc.).

The roles of civil society organisations are: (1) pressure groups, watchdogs, (2) articulation of needs, proposals, disagreements, (3) dialogue with representatives of government system and (4) monitoring government action. The roles of representatives of local government and of civil society can be different, although both may express wishes of the people.

Civil society forms of participation may be (1) movements for specific goals, (2) legally institutionalised, (3) requiring people's own initiative or (4) anti-government / anti-state / anti a problem-situation.

Community-based organisation

see Self help organisation

Conceptual guidelines

Guidelines given by a higher authority (e.g. the national level) to a lower one (e.g. local government) that do not prescribe, but put out a framework within which the lower authorities can specify their actions. Often named "policy". For example, the conceptual guidelines on "local economic development" allow and stimulate local authorities to develop their own measures promoting income-generating activities in the area of their jurisdiction.


Factors which nurture or cause deficiencies = problems experienced by people. They may be related to people's resources, to their actions, to the results of their actions. For example, low agricultural productivity is not a "problem" in itself, but it can be a "constraint" which leads to the "problem" of malnutrition.

Core problem

see Problem tree

Cost -benefit analysis

Cost-benefit analysis is a tool which addresses the question as to whether a production process is worthwhile from the point of view of the society as a whole, by looking at the resulting benefits (total value obtained) in relation to the cost of an operation (total value which has flowed into production). The criterion of usefulness is that more value must come out than was put in, and that so much more must come out that at least the interest (or the interest on profit lost) can be paid on the capital advanced. In order to adequately record the usefulness of investments with a long-term benefit effect we determine cost-benefit ratios not for a certain year but for the entire duration of use of an investment, basing this on the discounted present value of future costs and earnings.
Cost benefit analysis is commonly used in the process of project design and planning, during alternatives analysis.


The price paid or required for acquiring, producing or maintaining something, usually measured in money, time or energy (= expenditure, outlay).

see also Resources


Principles or standards by which things are judged. Used in alternatives analysis to compare various solutions identified and decide between them. Criteria are factors always linked to the issue under consideration e.g. feasibility would be a criteria for deciding on a type of income-generating project.

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Data and information

A plan is only as good as the data or information which goes into the analysis, design, and decision-making which precedes it: A negative formulation of this is the GIGO rule (garbage in - garbage out). This applies for example in planning workshops: detailed and precise information cannot normally be provided without preparation of data beforehand. Thus the need for empirical target groups analysis and institutional analysis as well as organised data relating to economic and ecological issues. Empirical analyses - often carried out by professionals (e.g. anthropologists, sociologists, economists) - complement the participatory surfacing of information in a workshop or via Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) sessions.


Decentralisation in development is a mechanism in which division of tasks and linkages between local units / efforts and the centre produce partnerships for development. Basic elements of decentralisation are deconcentration and devolution.

Strategic elements of decentralisation are: (1) discretionary funding so as to enable local level structures to set their own priorities, (2) limiting the number of local structures as a way to reduce bureaucracy, (3) capacity building at local level for planning and development (through training, recruitment, promotion, improved service conditions), (4) reducing indirect central controls which could arise as a result of the centre handing out responsibilities (e.g. promotion and professional development of local level personnel, budgetary allocations etc..).

see also Subsidiarity


Deconcentration is an element of decentralisation. The term describes the re-deployment of central government officers to the local or regional levels to manage sub-national affairs in line with central guidelines (central co-ordination through re-deployment).



Synonymous with problems related to people's lives and the various conditions for their living - past as well as present and future ones - which are unsatisfactory, difficult, insecure, unclear, not easily improved. A state of being, a quality of life which is not satisfactory to people because it falls short of their desires/expectations (i.e. satisfaction of basic needs such as nutrition, housing, health, life-expectancy, income, leisure time, etc., including environmental damage experienced). It can also be in respect of insufficient protection, care, solidarity or autonomy, identity, control of their present/future fate.

Dependency theories

Theories developed in the 1960s and 70s (by for example A. G. Frank and Samir Amin), which hold that the economic dependence of the Third World on Western markets, rooted in colonialism, persisted even after political independence of the ex-colonies. Economic benefit which flowed back to the colonial powers during colonial times, established a pattern which is now reinforced by trade agreements and foreign investments, to produce a form of neo-imperialism.


Depreciation is the reduction of the total value on an investment item caused by one year's utilisation. For example, if the investment cost for a car is $50.000 and if the expected life span is 10 years, then the annual depreciation is $5.000.

Developed countries

A term used to describe the northern, industrialised, market-oriented, mostly Western countries; a group also variously described as the "First World". The group consists of about 38 countries, generally those with a per capita income of over $10 000 per annum.

Developing countries

A term used to describe countries generally with per capita incomes below $5 000 (but often less than $1500). These countries are also termed Third World countries, underdeveloped countries, low-income countries, or the South (as opposed to the developed, industrialised North). They are characterised by low levels of technology, basic living standards, agricultural or extractive economies, with cheap unskilled labour and little investment capital, poverty, hunger, disease, illiteracy. 70% of the world's population live in developing countries in Africa, Asia, Oceania and Latin America.

see also Third World


The process (or sequence of problem-solving processes) by which people change a negative (unsatisfactory) situation to an improved one (in which some pressing problems do not persist), or at least, prevent the situation deteriorating further. Development involves the satisfaction of basic needs of people living in a state of poverty, and when successful, results in sustainable improvement of human living conditions. It happens as a result of spontaneous, motivated individual or group efforts of members of a society. Development is always linked to norms and values. Sometimes specified as socio-economic development.

Development (DC) co-operation

A technical term used in the development aid context. Development co-operation (DC) projects have executing agencies as their target groups. In their project planning matrix (PPM), goals and purposes are formulated as expected benefits / utilisation of the DC project's outputs and services by these executing agencies. In situations where there are no capable partners (they may be specially set up to suit the project's objectives) the DC intervention will directly interact with implementing agencies for testing or modelling situation adequate problem solutions.

Development from above / Development from below

Development from below, a spatial principle approach, originates from the theory of "self-centred" development: the objective is a long term increase in welfare, risk reduction, self determination, identity, accountability and transparency among beneficiaries. The objective should be achieved by the means of intraregional diversification and flexibility. Development from above represents the reverse, where the imperatives of government and professional planners are primary. A functional principle approach which aims to fast increase the welfare.

Development hypothesis

see Goal, Purpose, Hypothesis

Development policy guidelines

Documented recommended areas of emphasis or ways of operating in development formulated by national or international development donors e.g. the United Nations Development Programme, the World Bank, bilateral donors.

see also Conceptual guidelines

Development programme

A service providing structure operating in the context of socio-economic development which provides outputs and services to a needs-covering extent (often after situation-adequate solutions and measures were identified and tested by a development project). Programmes have the ultimate beneficiaries as their target groups. In their planning documentation, their goal(s) and purpose(s) are formulated as expected benefits / utilisation of programme outputs on the side of the beneficiaries.
Often a programme considers all relevant aspects of development, usually a collection of projects.

Development project

A set of temporarily, geographically and sectorally limited measures, carried out by an agency (a temporary organisational unit) with predetermined objectives, designed to develop and spread innovative solutions. Projects identify and disseminate locally-adjusted solutions. Projects should neither be full scale implementors of solutions because of their limited nature in relation to the ongoing development process, nor should they merely provide advisory services because of few possibilities to develop adjusted solutions. Their function is thus innovative, and advisory, and one of linking/mediating, and of enabling / support.
Projects have implementing agencies (= self-help organisations and permanent service providers) as their target groups, and in planning documentation, namely project planning matrix (PPM), goal(s) and purpose(s) are formulated as expected benefits / utilisation of project output and services on the side of implementing agencies while always assessing what benefits this will have on the ultimate target groups. These benefits provide the justification for the project intervention.


Devolution is an element of decentralisation describing how the central level grants lower tiers the power and resources to manage local affairs (local democracy).

see also Subsidiarity


A method of social research, part of the Participatory Rapid Appraisal (PRA) tool box which uses the generation of diagrams, often in the field, to help communication and learning (for example: maps, transects, seasonal calendars, flow diagrams, cartoons). Diagrams can be roughly drawn on paper, flip charts or even scratched on the ground, their value lies in dramatically simplifying and visualising fairly complex interrelated pieces of information.

Direct observation

A method of social research, part of the Participatory Rapid Appraisal (PRA) tool box. Direct observation involves taking a first hand look at the conditions, production practices, events, processes, relationships, people, problems etc.; in a given social context.

Diseconomies of scale

The term describes efficiency losses resulting from mass production.

see also Economies of scale


Diversification is a strategy to reduce risks in the case of (1) insecure economic frame conditions, (2) seasonality of economic activities and (3) limited availability of resources (small farm size) or limited demand. Diversification is often a means of survival of the poor in case of limited and insecure economic opportunities. It occurs when a company branches into production of a new product without ceasing production of existing products; or a farmer undertakes production of different crops. To support diversification involves the necessity of promoting seasonal or part-time activities and avoiding encouraging risky specialisation (e.g. monoculture).


Those who provide development aid in the form of funds or technical assistance.


Economic analysis

Economic analysis is a type of economic appraisal showing whether and to which degree, a certain investment or activity is advantageous compared to zero investment or compared to other fields of investment. The relevant terms of analysis are: benefits and costs.

see also Financial analysis, Micro-economic analysis, Macro-economic analysis, Cost benefit analysis, Break-even point analysis, Gross margin calculation

Economic growth

Economic growth is an expansion in the output of a nation's economy, and is measured by the annual growth of the gross domestic product (GDP) or of the national income. In order to determine the actual growth of the goods and services produced, values must be adjusted to allow for inflation. The value of the GDP is determined - not at the prices of the current year, but - at the prices (held constant) of a certain baseline year, and uses values which have been adjusted to take account of inflation.

Economic growth is considered desirable because it is seen as resulting in higher standards of living. However, this purely economic measure has been criticised as it does not include quality of life factors, environmental degradation, and the exploitation of natural resources. The United Nations' Human Development Index (introduced 1990) takes social and demographic factors into account as well.

Economies of scale

The term refers to advantages in efficiency resulting from mass production. Understanding the concepts (economies and diseconomies of scale) assists in making decisions between small-scale and large scale production units (farming, processing etc.): small units cannot make use of the advantages of certain technologies and very big units tend to become inflexible and less innovative. Factors influencing economies of scale are: (1) type of technology (hand-made products: low economies of scale vs. products which require expensive equipment: high economies of scale), (2) requirements of production process with regard to flexibility, staff motivation and feeling of ownership, (3) relative prices for labour and capital, (4) means of communication, and (5) entrepreneurial potential (the higher this is, the greater are the comparative advantages of small units).

See also Diseconomies of scale.

Empirical inventory

A scan of reality with qualitative or quantitative data/information.


Empowerment refers to a process of gaining power or control, for example in the case of people taking control of their own lives and circumstances by freeing themselves from dependency on others. Crucial here is the concept of power, and in the context of development, empowering people through development interventions demands an understanding of power relations and the dynamics of power and control, and stimulating people to help themselves out of dependency. Empowerment involves a process of conscientisation as much as it does interventions around poverty-related issues. It follows that no-one can be empowered if s/he does not empower her-/himself.

Entrepreneurial capital

The money used by an entrepreneur himself (or shareholders) in a company. Unlike the concept of capital of bourgeois national economy, this business economic concept of capital contains not only the money intended for the purchase of the means of production. The opposite of entrepreneurial capital is the (borrowed) outside capital and both together form the total capital of the business on the basis of which the total capital profitability can be determined.

Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA)

EIA is a systematic method to identify the impact of actual or envisaged intervention measures (alternatives) on relevant elements of an ecological system. EIA is used in development as a tool to assess the impact of identified development interventions; it is also used to assess the impact of industrial or commercial installations. It applies both in the rural and urban contexts.


An event designed to systematically examine and assess the planning, implementation and impact of a development project or -programme, in relation to each other and to development policy guidelines. Its aim is not to judge. The term typically refers to an external evaluation conducted by a facilitator and subject specialists with no involvement in the project or programme.

Generally, the following steps are taken: (1) a systematic examination of the relevance and efficiency of the planning, the efficiency of implementation as well as the nature, extent and coverage of the intended and unintended impact of a project or programme, (2) careful assessment of the extent to which a project/ programme has promoted the relevant aspects of development policy, such as poverty alleviation, sustainable use of natural resources, women's empowerment, people's participation, etc., (3) with the aim of ensuring the effectiveness of future project work through operational recommendations which are based on hands-on experiences; Evaluation conducted internally refers to the analysis of observations and measurements made in the course of monitoring (of impact, frame conditions, performance), and drawing conclusions from these in relation to project objectives and policies. This is conducted by project or programme staff. Internal evaluation is often referred to in the context of the acronyms MEA (Monitoring, Evaluation and Adjustment) or M&E (Monitoring and Evaluation).

Export base concept

The export base concept was developed in the USA in the early 1950s (modernisation and growth theories) to explain growth of (urban) regions. It was only later that the concept was applied to the question of finding possibilities for promotion of growth in less developed regions. The core factor for regional economic growth is seen as impulses from external demand. Incomes obtained by export sectors are deemed to be necessary (and sufficient) to stimulate an increased demand on internal markets and respective internal market-oriented activities (via so called income multiplicators). The demand impulses, which are spread out in an undulating way, can lead to additional income which may add up to triple the income gained in the export sector. The hypothesis was empirically verified by the example of American towns.

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A person responsible for the procedure and process of an event, e.g. a workshop, a meeting. In development (e.g. in planning) usually an external person with no stake in the issue at hand. The facilitator is responsible for how an event proceeds, not for the content. Facilitators often make use of visualisation techniques for tracking discussion and for documentation, e.g. the Metaplan, mind-mapping.

Factor costs

Factors of production are usually labour, land, capital on land, and capital. Factor costs involve the investment cost (these costs are related to the production volume and revenues of a numbers of years) in the form of depreciation.

For small-scale (family-type) enterprises one needs to distinguish between: (1) factor costs for externally bought factors of production (e.g. wages for hired labour, interests for credits, rents for buildings or lands) and (2) factor costs for contributions of the entrepreneur and his family which are usually not paid for in terms of wages, interest or rent payments, but which are expected to be covered by the balance between revenue and external costs, the so-called "gross margin".

see also Gross margin calculation, Input costs, Investment costs


The degree to which something is able to be done, or in the economic sense profitable. Used in feasibility criteria.

see also Viability

Financial analysis

A type of economic appraisal showing whether a certain investment or activity is financially feasible, i.e. whether at any point in time the money will be available to continue the activity. The relevant terms of analysis are: revenue and expenditure.

see also Economic analysis, Micro-economic analysis, Macro-economic analysis.

First World

see Developed countries

Frame conditions

Frame conditions constitute the environment in which a development project or -programme operates. They produce situations which are either conducive to the achievement of objectives, or - and this is mostly the case - which are adverse, and ways have to be found to deal with them adequately.

Frame conditions which may reflect the reality of developing countries (in each case with differing intensity and differing variations), and which cannot easily be influenced by actors on the level of a development project or -programme, are: ecological frame conditions (e.g. limited or even diminishing potential in usable natural resources (land, water etc.)), economic frame conditions (e.g. limited sales markets for increased production, foreign exchange bottlenecks, high level of foreign debt.), political - institutional frame conditions (e.g. limited flexibility of state administration as regular service institution) and socio-cultural frame conditions (e.g. care of social and client relationships has high importance). What constitutes a frame condition in a given situation depends on the level of system under consideration: for a project in a community the actions (or inaction) of service providers represent frame conditions; whereas for a capacity building project with service providers this is the object of influencing change.

see also Assumptions

Functional principle (approach)

see Development from above / Development from below

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The term gender describes the specific social roles of women and men in a given culture. In contrast to the biological "sex" (innate and mostly unchangeable), "gender" remains culturally formed and changeable. "Female" and "male" roles vary depending on the culture and society. Gender roles are culturally formed, individually learned and from time to time bargained upon. They are mainly determined by the social, cultural and economic organisation of a society as well as the predominant religious, moral and legal regulations and standards. Inside a given society gender roles may differ from each other depending on the marital status, economic situation, ethnic or religious group Gender bias and discrimination can be related to class, caste, or race. etc. of the persons/ families. Gender discrimination results in women being denied access to basic needs, e.g. food, education, jobs, information, credit, and it assists in maintaining, or exacerbating poverty.

Knowledge about the specific gender roles inside a society is a prerequisite for any development planning. "Genderised" planning means avoiding discrimination of women through development interventions, but it does not aim at changing gender-relations by alien interventions.

Gender analysis

Gender analysis is a specific type of target group analysis. It focuses on the gender-specific distribution of roles and duties and the socio-economic interrelations among the genders in a system. In the centre of the analysis is the distribution of resources, tasks/ activities and goods/ income between the genders in relation to the interconnected aspects of control/ power, work load/ duties and satisfaction of needs.


A term used technically in development planning to describe the benefit as part of the intended impact of a development project or -programme. In the intervention strategy of a LogFrame plan the goal describes the benefits which the beneficiaries or target groups and/or supporting institutions are expected to gain from a development project or -programme. This should be consistent with their desires and intentions, and their capabilities. The goal statement may contain hints as to which type of capabilities the target group should be enabled to maintain or develop to improve their conditions in changing economic, social and institutional environments. Together with the purpose statement, the goal constitutes the plan's development hypothesis by indicating expected impact.

Grassroots organisation

see Self help organisation

Gross domestic product (GDP)

The gross domestic product represents the value of the goods and services produced within the borders of a country, irrespective of whether the production of goods and services is performed by foreign or domestic businesses, or by foreign or domestic labour. Gross domestic product is presented as the result of the contributions of the individual companies or economic sectors. The goods and services produced are valued at their current market price. The level of economic activity in a country is measured as a rule by the amount of the gross domestic product at market prices.

see also Gross national product, Net domestic product.

Gross margin calculation

A method of micro-economic analysis. Gross margin is equal to income less costs (equals net income). For a gross margin calculation, all income from a certain economic activity and all costs have to be identified and quantified. When doing so, three cost factors have to be distinguished: (1) investment costs, (2) input costs and (3) factor costs.

Gross national product (GNP)

The total value of all goods and services produced by the national citizens or business of a country in a specified period (usually annually), and including income received from other countries (e.g. interest payments). The GNP is most commonly used as a measure of a country's wealth and is expressed as a per capita figure (total GNP divided by number of people in population). Therefore GNP is gross domestic product (GDP) plus the income accruing to domestic residents arising from investment abroad, less income earned in the domestic markets accruing to foreigners abroad.

see also Gross domestic product, Net national product.


More than one; in the technical sense, it is important to differentiate between: (1) a group as a social unit (social group): a number of human beings who do something jointly; characterised by the feeling of togetherness, interaction of group members, common objectives, and, (2) group as a statistical unit (sociological group): individuals who share a certain set of characteristics which distinguish them from other people. Such sociological groups are the relevant type of groups for a target group analysis.

Group interviewing

A method of social research, part of the Participatory Rapid Appraisal (PRA) tool box. Interviews may be conducted in focus groups (for the investigation of interest-groups or specialists' opinions and attitudes), or open group workshops (for general discussion or feedback).

Growth pole

The economic growth pole theory was developed in France in the 1950s and gained world-wide popularity with planners and politicians. The regional version of the growth pole theory deals with the question of which industrial sectors would be suitable for stimulating economic growth in one region. The idea behind this is to initiate a growth cycle in peripheral regions by locating some key industries there in order to overcome regional disparities. (Note: also used for growth axis, growth corridors).

Regional planners appropriated the assessments of the growth pole theory under the slogan "decentralised concentration". Respective policy procedures concentrate on identifying a suitable site within a peripheral region as a potential growth centre and providing special incentives (subsidies, credits, infrastructure, etc.) for locating industrial enterprises at such a location. It is expected that after the establishment of these industries a spontaneous self-reinforcing growth process develops.

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Composed of different elements that have different origins and do not belong to one organism or system (opposite of homogeneous). The term structural heterogeneity expresses this disunity: elements are together at a place at one time, but their existence is influenced by external forces (dependency theory = characteristic for under-developed societies).

Hierarchy of objectives

There are objectives of higher importance and lower level intermediate objectives that contribute to reaching higher objectives. If objectives are laid out as a (simplified) system, they can be put in the structure of a hierarchy. For example, if a high ranking objective is "income increase", then to reach this objective contributing objectives would be "income in agriculture is increased" and "income in non-agricultural sectors is increased". This principle can be pursued down to lower level objectives, until one has constructed an "objectives tree".

Horizontal logic

The logical relationship in the project planning matrix (PPM) or LogFrame between the objectives in the intervention strategy column, and their related indicators and means of verification (MoVs). It ensures that each objective (each result, the project purpose and the goal) is specified in measurable (and to a certain extent quantifiable) terms so that its achievement can be verified. Indicators are formulated as the performance yardstick by which the success or failure to attain the project results, purpose and goal can be judged. In order to monitor the process, a transparent and reliable source of information (the "Means of Verification") from which the evidence of success or failure can be collected in an objective manner is specified for each indicator.


A suggested explanation for a group of phenomena / facts / perceptions that is either accepted as a basis for further verification (working hypothesis) or accepted as likely to be true; also a supposition or assumption in an argument, or a debated theory.

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Indicators are qualified/quantified parameters which detail the extent to which objectives (goal, purpose and output) have been achieved within a given time frame and in a specified location. They represent performance standards and should be objectively verifiable (empirically observable, quantified and concrete) - hence the term objectively verifiable indicators (OVIs) - by all persons involved in monitoring and evaluation. When different persons, who may be involved in monitoring the progress of a project or evaluating the achievements of project objectives, use OVIs for measuring reality, they should arrive at the same conclusions. Indicators are specified for what, who, how, how many, where when, and may be of different types (e.g. direct, indirect/ proxy, impact indicators).


see Data and information

Input costs

Inputs are items which are bought from other enterprises (e.g. fertiliser for crop production or grain for milling), and are transformed during a production process. In projects and programmes the term is synonymous with budget (for personnel, equipment, operations).

see also Gross margin calculation, Investment costs, Factor costs


see Resources


Agencies or mechanisms for regulating socio-economic processes.

see also Institutional development.

Institutional analysis

Analysis of an institution / institutions (which may include organisations) as distinct from organisational analysis which, using a task and systems approach looks at the effectiveness and efficiency of organisations (singly or in a network). For example an institutional analysis could look at the set-up established by midwives to effect health care of pregnant and new mothers in a sub-region; this would include organisations (church women's group) and institutions - as social mechanisms (extended family care systems) and as agencies (the local government clinic).

See also Organisational analysis

Institutional development

Institutional development involves improvement of the overall institutional system (including regulation mechanisms like legislation, market systems etc.). Institutional and organisational development represent complementary measures in the context of problem/task- and target group/user-oriented planning of interventions. Institution building alone is insufficient, as the "trickle down" from promoted agencies and organisations to envisaged beneficiaries seldom, if ever, takes place. In development it is a socio-political approach.

see also Organisational development


A professional engaged in planning/designing/directing/facilitating/executing a development intervention. Interventions in the lives of the people concerned, by an external force need to be approached with responsibility and awareness. Ideally an intervener (1) attends, observes, and selectively shares observations of what s/he sees, hears, feels, establishing her/his presence in doing so and (2) focuses on energy in the system with regard to the emergence or lack of themes (common figures) for which there is energy, and to support the mobilisation of energy so that something happens. Ideally then the intervener assumes a marginal role, s/he is attached to the system but not a part of it. The marginal role enables the intervener to make 'clean' observations and interventions (this means not taking things for granted, not making assumptions, clarifying in an unbiased way, attending to what is reflected in oneself). S/he assumes the stance of a stranger in a foreign land - no matter how familiar the client system may appear.

Other non-facilitating tasks of an intervener in a development setting are: (1) to co-ordinate between various role-players, (2) to be innovative in supporting the emergence of locally adjusted designs the dissemination of which s/he fosters, (3) to mediate between different interest groups and (4) to advocate for the alleviation of poverty.

Intervention strategy

In the development sense, the intervention strategy refers to the plan of action or policy of an agency (e.g. development project or -programme) for entering into a situation in order to stimulate events to bring about positive change (development), or prevent a deterioration of a problem situation. Technically this is contained in the first column of the project planning matrix (PPM) and consists of statements of goal, purpose, outputs and activities.


Investment is expenditure for the purchase and the production of goods which are not for consumption (real "capital goods"). Beyond the purchase of means of production in the strict sense, this includes expenditure for all objects intended for commercial use (e.g. property, residence). Investment goods are only those used for a large number of production processes in the long term (longer than one year) and thus increase the stock of means of production, i.e. are not used entirely for product (such as flour for bread).

Investment costs

The costs related to land, buildings, machinery and equipment as far as they are meant to be used for many production processes or periods (i.e. for more than one year at least).

see also Gross margin calculation, Input costs, Factor costs, Depreciation

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Labour intensity

The reciprocal value of capital intensity: the number of employees per unit of means of production. A process or product is labour intensive if it uses proportionately more labour in its production than other factors of production (e.g. handmade goods with low material content). This is an indicator of the technological level of the economy (of a branch of industry, of a company).

Labour productivity

The average product produced by a working person in one hour. The most suitable measure of the productive capacity achieved by a society.

see also Capital productivity.

Land assessment

This is a specific planning methodology forming part of Land Use Planning (LUP) which assesses natural resources potentials. Land assessment can be done in two ways: (1) land assessment by specialists (using mapping, remote sensing, satellite images, Geographical Information Systems); or (2) land assessment by users (using village maps, landscape models, transect walks, soil diagnosis based on indigenous soil classification terms etc.). For community-level LUP these approaches can be combined.

Land Use Planning (LUP)

Land Use Planning is a process used to arrive at decisions on sustainable types of land utilisation and on entitled users. In the context of development planning, LUP should not be considered as one planning step, but rather as one specific field of planning, which is related to land use issues. Thus, LUP usually becomes relevant when (1) the problem analysis has identified land use related constraints (problem-causing factors) and (2) the potentiality analysis has identified under-utilised land-related potentials. In that case alternative options for improved land use systems have to be identified and assessed within the frame of the alternatives analysis.

Locally integrated economic development

An economic strategy / approach based on the principle: use local resources for direct satisfaction of local needs, as far as this is economically viable under given market conditions, start planning from below accordingly. The objective of the approach is the expansion of local markets and reduction of external dependencies and risks, as long as this does not result in unacceptable disadvantages with regard to wages, prices and quality. The main questions are: how can comprehensive development in poor areas be initiated, (development which is diversified, builds on local motivation, and uses regional potential as far as possible for satisfying needs of the regional population)? And, how can the respective sectors of production, suitable and partner institutions for such a strategy be identified?

Locally interlinked activities will be viable and attractive, the more remote a region is, the more diversified the regional resources are, the higher the degree of people's regional identity is, and the more people belong to an income category which is above the subsistence level, which allows them to go for "western" industrial commodities. Increasing prices and scarcities of foreign exchange tend to improve the conditions for viable locally interlinked economic activities. The concept encapsulates the economic aspects of the strategy of agropolitan development.


See Logical Framework Approach (LFA)


see Horizontal logic, Vertical logic

Logical Framework Approach (LFA)

Planning methods which use a matrix arrangement to describe and differentiate objectives on different levels, and the logical relationships between them (e.g. project planning matrix or LogFrame). Standards of logical framework approaches vary with different donor agencies.

The LogFrame is a matrix, that gives an overview of:

  • Why is an intervention / a measure / a project carried out? (goal)
  • What is the project expected to achieve/ to change? (purpose)
  • What will the project deliver/ hand over? (outputs/ results)
  • How is the project going to achieve its outputs/ results? (activities)
  • Which external factors are crucial for the success of the project? (assumptions)
  • How can one assess the success? (indicators)
  • Where to find the data required to assess the success? (means of verification)

see also Objectives-oriented planning, Zielorientierte Projektplanung (ZOPP)

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Macro-economic analysis

Macro-economic analysis is a type of economic appraisal used in the development context in relation to economic (and social) benefits for society and to the financial feasibility of government support (e.g. in case of subsidies). It can inform us whether the promotion of certain economic activities through development programmes will (1) bring more benefits than costs for the society and (2) result in activities which can be financed in the long run. Macro-economic analysis is usually applied by economists in case of larger public investment programmes.

see also Financial analysis, Micro-economic analysis.

Management by Objectives (MBO)

Management which orientates all activities and resources to end / predefined objectives.


A rectangular arrangement of elements or factors or concepts in rows and columns that together represent a single entity (e.g. a development project plan).

see also Project planning matrix (PPM)

Matrix organisation

An organisation whose positions are clustered into units by a combination of several clustering criteria (e.g. an international organisation working in different fields in various countries / continents). A matrix organisation best covers the complexity of reality, requires high efforts of co-ordination, promotes (and demands) solving of conflicts in a productive way and promotes creativity of staff (two dimensional thinking).

see also Multi-line organisation, Single-line organisation.


see Monitoring, Evaluation


see Monitoring, Evaluation

Means of Verification (MoV)

A technical term used in LogFrame planning to denote data sources for indicators (examples are annual reports, statistical surveys, census reports, bank statements, etc.). In a plan, MoVs indicate how to find evidence that objectives have been met and where to find the data required for each indicator. Indicators and MoV form the basis of the monitoring system of a development project or -programme. In practice, in a LogFrame planning workshop MoVs can only be defined provisionally; they are revised as the monitoring system is elaborated.


A system of visualisation and documentation using coloured cards (of varying shapes and sizes) pinned to pinboards. Frequently used in the facilitation of planning workshops. Metaplan allows for many contributions to be put forward in parallel / at the same time, making communication more efficient. It is used in order that all voices be heard equally (participants all write cards on issue under discussion), and to enable flexible tracking of discussion by a facilitator in moving and grouping cards.

Micro-economic analysis

A type of economic appraisal, micro-economic analysis is related to the economic and financial effects for a single business or operational unit (private enterprise, public organisation). It can inform us whether such a unit can survive and bring benefits to its members in the long run (thus achieving economic sustainability).Micro-economic analysis is usually applied in the identification of viable income-generating activities and for public support to private economic activities (e.g. promotion of small-scale enterprises).

see also Economic analysis, Financial analysis, Macro-economic analysis


A term used in operational planning to identify intermediate targets. Milestones define the targets which are to be reached by activities or sub-activities. As the activities or sub-activities are listed in a consecutive order the completion of each activity may be seen as a 'milestone' on the way to achieving the relevant output. Milestones are the yardsticks for monitoring.


A method of tracking and visually documenting the development of an idea showing all relevant interlinked points. Done in such a way to reflect the architecture and thought patterns of the brain. Used as a visualisation technique by facilitators of workshops.

Modernisation and Growth Theories

Modernisation ("modern") is a recent (1960s) term to describe mainly socio-economic changes brought about by industrialisation. It contrasts with traditional = not industrialised. In development, modernisation theories perceived a gap between traditional socio-economic systems that were not (yet) industrialised / un-developed, and highly developed systems : development was synonymous with modernisation = lifting traditional systems up to the level of modern ones.


Monitoring involves observing and assessing achievements (of a development project or -programme for example), on an ongoing basis, and is an internal affair of a management team. Systematic observation and documentation of information on implementation, often based on the indicators and means of verification stipulated during planning, is carried out. It is distinct from the evaluation of a project by external agents. Monitoring is an instrument that continuously delivers information concerning the actual status of an undertaking to persons involved in the implementation process, including target groups and beneficiaries. Monitoring is often referred to in the context of the acronyms MEA (Monitoring, Evaluation and Adjustment) or M&E (Monitoring and Evaluation).

Mono-sectoral and Multi-sectoral

Development interventions originating from and focussing on one bottleneck perceived in a "traditional" system were called mono-sectoral. When it was discovered that such interventions tended to create bottlenecks in other sectors, there was reason for starting the identification of a development intervention without sectoral blinkers (multi-sectoral). In the meantime, it has become standard that identification needs to be multi-sectoral, whereas implementation relies - for the role of service provider - on sectoral agencies.


see Means of Verification

Multi-line organisation

A type of organisation with several superiors, where every superior is responsible for certain aspects only. Advantages of this organisational structure include: specialisation within management, short communication channels, and functional authority. The disadvantages include: conflicts about competence, insecurity, and controlling is often difficult.

See also Matrix organisation, Single-line organisation.

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National income

The net national income at factor cost is that part of the total product not retained by business as the equivalent for the replacement of absolute means of production and not transferred to the State as sales tax (indirect taxes) before it becomes somebody's income (but not resulting from government subsidies).

The national income is the sum of all income received in a given year; it represents the sum of all factor payments of domestic economic units (private persons or businesses) involved in the production process. This is equivalent to the sum of all income in the form of wages, salaries, interest, profits and rent (as gross income, i.e. prior to deduction of the tax applicable to the individual income type), irrespective of whether it is retained in the business or, for instance, distributed to the shareholding private households as dividends.

National Income Accounts (NIA)

A macro-economic model with a variety of concepts comprising all those parameters by which a country's (or a region's) level of economic activity, the level of wealth of its population, its economic growth, the composition of its production and the distribution and utilisation of its income are normally measured. The amounts covered by the NIA refer to the period of one year. Indicators (such as national income, gross domestic product (GDP) etc.) are used as a measure of success of a country's economy and economic policy. It is important to know their significance and their limits within the framework of an analysis for development (within the economic dimension). The NIA is based on a circular-flow model. The economy is divided into two poles: production (business) and consumption (households). In the simplified basic model the entire output flows from the businesses to the households, which in their turn supply the businesses with the labour needed to achieve this output. In capitalist economies, characterised by private ownership of means of production, the capital used to finance the production process also appears as something supplied (factor input) by private households to businesses (as it is private persons who supply the corporate capital). To apply the parameters of the NIA as a measure of economic success is problematic.

National product

The national product represents that value accruing to residents from production processes, irrespective of where the goods or services are produced. The production location is not decisive but the (permanent) abode of these receiving income from the production processes. Profits of national entrepreneurs abroad and salaries obtained abroad by labour resident in a nation are therefore included in the national product, the income of foreign labour and the profits of foreign companies are not (exactly the opposite applies in the case of the domestic product). The differentiation between domestic and national product is particularly important when considering developing countries, where large production sectors are in the hand of foreign businesses. The domestic product, which includes the investment income of these companies, often far exceeds the national product accruing to the inhabitants of the country in question. This makes measurements of wealth and growth on the basis of gross domestic product (GDP) in these countries especially difficult.

see also Gross national product (GNP)

Natural resource management

see Resource management


see Basic needs

Neo-classic economic theory

Neo-classic economic theory dates from the turn of the century and, although highly controversial, remains the dominant school of thought in economics. Part of modernisation and growth theories, it endeavours to analyse the effects of the market mechanism on utilisation of resources, distribution of income and economic growth in general. Such effects are formulated as models derived from a functioning market mechanism. The theory concludes that optimum resource use and a fair distribution of income and economic growth depends on the market mechanism functioning.

The neo-classical school explains continuous economic development differences in terms of the failure of the compensatory market mechanism to function. In other words, the markets of peripheral economic regions are not sufficiently integrated into the growth regions ("regional dualism" occurs). An example of neo-classic reasoning is: if markets function, the labour force will migrate from peripheral low income regions (=p) to central high income regions (=c); by out-migration, labour resources in p become scarce, which results in an increase in remuneration, while in c a surplus of labour force develops which results in a decrease of remuneration. The effect is an assimilation of incomes; respective effects are reached by the migration of capital from c to p in order to make use of the low wage-level there.

Net domestic product / net national product

The difference between gross and net refers to the question: is that part of production representing the depreciation of means of production (which serves to replace worn out means of production, so called reinvestments) included (=gross) or not (=net)? The differences is of no importance in assessing production levels and economic strength. If it comes to income levels and wealth however, net values are considered more suitable as depreciation is the part of business income which equals the cost of using means of production.

see also Gross domestic product, Gross national product

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Objectively verifiable indicators (OVI)

see indicators


Desired and realistically achievable conditions which people strive for with respect to a problem under discussion. Objectives of different groups of people, organisations and institutions vary because of the multiple realities in which they live or perceive themselves. In the project planning matrix (PPM) objectives appear in the first column as the intervention strategy and are also known as strategic objectives.

see also Hierarchy of objectives

Objectives analysis

An objectives analysis in a wide sense is a procedure for systematically identifying, categorising, specifying and - if required - balancing out objectives of all parties involved in a specific situation (for which those objectives apply). The expected outcome of such analysis is a set of objectives for the issue under analysis, which represents the position of all relevant parties, and which is accepted by the responsible decision-makers and also is consistent in itself. It is useful to distinguish the analysis of contextual objectives from the process of strategic planning (=design of development interventions). A lesser-used term for objectives analysis is aspirations analysis.

Objectives-oriented (project) planning

A method of objectives oriented planning, with roots in the Management by Objectives (MBO) approach. Objectives oriented planning is used in development to separate and specify the objectives of an intervention according to different levels of system, namely beneficiaries (goal objective), users (purpose objective), intervention agency / project (outputs / results and activities). The arrangement of these objectives in a matrix-based planning document relate this to the logical framework approach (LFA) to planning. Objectives oriented planning addresses the planning function in the process of managing a development project through its life cycle, namely in project cycle management (PCM). Its use may include additional analytical elements (participants analysis, problem analysis, objectives analysis, alternatives analysis), and features of genuine stakeholder participation and visualisation/documentation (Metaplan method). The approach centres around the compilation of a project planning matrix (PPM) in a workshop environment.

see also Zielorientierte Projektplanung (ZOPP)

Operational planning

see Plan of operations

Organisational analysis

Analysis of institutions / organisations affected by a particular development project or -programme, typically conducted as part of the situation analysis. The purposes of an organisational analysis are (1) identification of appropriate implementing agencies for development measures either of service providers / support agencies or of self-help groups and (2) identification of requirements for organisational support/promotion. The prerequisite for an organisational analysis is a tentative decision on general development objectives and measures (e.g. from a situation- and a target group analysis), as the suitability of organisations can only be assessed with respect to defined tasks. Different to the organisation-focussed OD approach, organisational analyses carried out from a socio-economic development stance are focussed on the suitability of an organisation or a network of organisations for societal development. The organisational analysis will enter into intervention planning (e.g.LogFrame). The instrument of the organisational analysis can be applied with any organisation. Organisational analyses can be carried out by external specialists as well as through a self-analysis or by a combination of both (facilitated participatory organisational analysis); in organisations which primarily operate for the interest of their members, self-analysis will be more conducive; organisations which are charged with public duties will be unable to avoid external diagnosis. Organisational analysis is based on documented research, interviews and discussion, and typically covers strengths and weaknesses, potentials, affiliations, social characteristics, structure, status. The results of organisational analyses are often politically sensitive.

see also Organisations, Institutional analysis

Organisational development (OD)

Organisational development seeks to improve an organisation as an entity with regard to identified shortcomings, for example in the organisational structure, performance, etc. OD can also be applied for a group of organisations that network in order to fulfil a specific task, be they existing organisations or new organisations (government agencies, non-governmental organisations, self help organisations, private enterprises) which are to be initiated or established. The focus for state agencies is not on increasing their capacities, but on measures to increase their effectiveness / impact at given levels of capacity (because of limited state budgets and structural limitations of the state service system); that is, to concentrate on more effect, with reduced current cost and without increasing the workload. Promotion focuses on identified problems and is not guided by model solutions derived from ideas about optimum-functioning organisations.

see also Organisations, Institutional development


Organisations are informal or formalised groups of several persons with a common purpose. Examples of organisations are: government agencies, sectoral service organisations, para-statal organisations, private enterprises, "third sector" organisations.

see also Organisational development

Outputs/ results

Statements in the intervention strategy of a LogFrame plan which describe the facilities, services and products/goods provided by a development project or -programme. These are the 'deliverables' of a project or programme, produced by its management for which it is responsible. Outputs or results must express the nature, scope and intensity of support of the solution being sought. This may include: (1) provision of information on support/solution, (2) compatibility of support/solution with prevailing frame conditions, (3) access to support/solution by specific target-groups, including gender-aspects, (4) availability of support/solution and (5) capacity building of agency/agencies which provide support/solution.

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All envisaged beneficiaries (ultimate users, customers, those who benefit from a development intervention because they are needy), all service agencies (corporate, NGO or government agencies which provide services), service providers (a type of service agency, specifically corporate) and support agencies (those who either provide developmental services or have a supportive role in a development intervention e.g. NGOs, political umbrella agencies/persons), implementing agencies (those who are formally and actively involved in carrying out activities in the frame of a development project or -programme), stakeholders (those who have an interest in the "field" of a development intervention), role-players (those who take part in the intervention - the structural term is actor constellation), target groups (those who are addressed by a development intervention), affected groups which are involved in or affected by a development project or -programme (those who are impacted upon, either positively - envisaged beneficiaries - or negatively.

Participants analysis

The participants analysis forms part of a situation analysis. It is an analysis of the problems, fears interests, expectations, restrictions and potentials of all important groups, organisations and institutions, implementing agencies, other projects and individuals, who may have an influence on a situation or intended intervention or are themselves affected by it. A participants analysis is not a substitute for the analysis of target groups, envisaged beneficiaries and affected groups, or of implementing agencies or co-operating agencies. Instead it is either a procedure to identify those actors that need to be analysed in more detail, or a concise way of presenting the results of such analyses.


Participation is a process of co-ordinated decision-making and action-entailing interactions by persons and agencies involved in an initiative, for example a development project or -programme. It is a process which allows all parties concerned to formulate their interests and objectives in a dialogue. This should then lead to attuned decisions and activities on the part of each party, which - as far as possible - take into consideration the interests and objectives of all other concerned parties. It involves the question of how to make sure that all parties concerned, especially disadvantaged groups, can participate, and finding solutions to the question of who decides what, with which legitimacy when and how often.

There are different types of participation (for example by target groups, by state institutions, by project staff members). Different types are appropriate in different situations depending on what information is required for what decisions, by whom a decision is made and who is responsible for its consequences, how often decisions need to be made, which issue is at stake, etc.. The types relate to the process used and ways of structuring participation.

Participatory action research (PAR) / Participatory learning

An approach introduced to enhance the practice of Participatory Rapid Appraisal (PRA) under the guiding principle of learning from, with and by people incorporated in the process. The PAR team attempts to see "with the eyes of the people" concerned, including the poor and disadvantaged. Analytical instruments are applied with utmost care and only together with the people. Representatives or advocates of the groups concerned, who are knowledgeable about their situation and able to voice people's interests (mainly for those who cannot / do not speak up themselves) are incorporated before an actual field phase. The team shares people's lives and gets to know people's strategies for solving their problems.

Participatory dialogue

One type / instrument of participation. Decisions of partner institutions and target groups are based on mutual exchange of information and are attuned to and co-ordinated with one other. People's information influences agencies' decisions, and agencies' information influences people's decisions. It represents a kind of picture-book case of participation. Instruments of participatory dialogue are: individual discussions with knowledgeable persons, representatives or target group members, informal group discussions, dialogues for identifying problems and problem solutions with visual aids (e.g. Participatory Rapid Appraisal (PRA), maps, aerial photos etc.), participatory action research, official meetings.

Participatory Rapid Appraisal (PRA)

PRA is an instrument developed in the rural setting to enable the self-determination and self-motivation of people to analyse their own situation. From the intervenors' point of view it can be considered a systematic process of learning about the situation and context of a development intervention or an issue related to it, in an intensive, cumulative and efficient events-related manner. PRA involves information/ data collection and structuring, developing hypotheses about problems, constraints and potentials. It may be used in situation analysis.

Methodologically PRA relies on small multidisciplinary teams that employ a range of methods, tools and techniques, specifically selected to enhance the awareness of situations and conditions, with particular emphasis on tapping the knowledge of people concerned, and combining the knowledge with specialists' expertise. PRA tools and techniques were adopted to achieve a required accuracy at low cost (in terms of time and money). It uses visual methods to facilitate discussion and the surfacing of data and information (e.g. village mapping with stones, sticks, beans). It is done on-site, and aims at ensuring that all voices are heard, at participation. PRA is characterised by accelerated learning, not just by overall speed: rapid rounds of field interaction that result in the accumulation of increasingly accurate knowledge. PRA stress the active role to be taken over by people concerned: not only experts learn, but people learn. "Sharing realities" is the process by which members of a social group are stimulated and supported to analyse and evaluate their development potentials and constraints within an acceptable time frame - even to come to sufficiently profound decisions on their priorities / possible actions.

PRA methods include diagramming, direct observation, group interviews, ranking, secondary data review, semi-structured interviewing, triangulation.

see also Participatory action research / participatory learning, Participatory dialogue

People's organisation

see Self help organisation


see Centre-periphery model


A development intervener specifically involved in planning processes.

see Intervener


A process of communication, clarification and understanding between individuals and groups who wish to work to change an undesirable situation (for example one in which people live in poverty, lacking basic needs). Planning is a process leading from problems to a problem-solving strategy, taking into consideration problem-solving potentials via the identification of alternative problem-solving options and identification of alternative actors/ organisations. The alternatives are appraised considering economic, ecological, social/ cultural and institutional criteria. The problem-solving strategy consists of a logically consistent and specified set of objectives, measures and inputs taking into consideration assumptions about the development of relevant frame conditions with participation of all relevant actors, intended beneficiaries and knowledgeable persons.

Planning involves the anticipation and scheduling of future actions (or interventions), together with the utilisation of resources, all directed toward achieving defined objectives.

Hence the term "objectives-oriented planning" and specific methods thereof, namely objectives oriented planning, Zielorientierte Projektplanung (ZOPP) (also known as a Logical Framework Approach (LFA)). Strategic planning involves the formulation of an intervention strategy, with detailed operational planning following in the Plan of Operations (PlanOps).

see also Planner

Plan of Operations (PlanOps)

The Plan of Operations is the detailed plan for the implementation of a development project or -programme based on the project planning matrix (PPM). It is established by the project or programme team and consists of workplans/work schedules, budget/resources plan, personnel plans, staff training plans, material and equipment plan/procurement plan. As such it outlines in detail what will be done (activities, sub-activities), when (time schedules), with what (resources), by whom (personnel), and the related milestones (intermediate targets) and assumptions. The process of formulating the PlanOp is known as operations/operational planning, sometimes referred to as action planning or business planning.


Any resource or opportunity which is unutilised or under-utilised, but may be utilised in order to achieve objectives. Development interventions aim at unlocking potentials in target groups in order to enable them to tackle problems, and thereby alleviate poverty.

See also Potentiality Analysis

Potentiality / Potentials analysis

Potentials analysis is a procedure / process conducted prior to making a decision on a problem-solving intervention. It is used to identify all potentials which may be utilised or developed in order to contribute toward the attainment of identified objectives. Potentials may be found using the systems model and exploring possible additional activities and/or resources, or the intensified use of existing ones. A systematic way of analysing potentials, especially for identifying income generating- / job opportunities, is the Resource Demand Matrix


The condition or state of not being able to satisfy one's basic needs, that is being without adequate food, money, etc.. In developing countries poverty is a mass phenomenon: the majority of people can be considered poor. Development efforts are aimed at poverty alleviation or poverty reduction designed to encourage the productivity and creativity of the poor (develop their potential), and enable them through their own socio-economic activities to develop.

Poverty alleviation / Poverty orientation

Poverty orientation has the aim of putting the majority of the population in a position to better satisfy their basic needs. It constitutes the central principle of development interventions. Poverty orientation in this sense can then be equated with mass orientation, with the attempt to reach the majority. In this it accords with the stress laid on more even participation by wide circles of the population in economic growth. It must explicitly incorporate efforts to promote production as well as distribution.

This definition of poverty orientation is clearly differentiated from selective approaches, offering solutions for only a minority of the 'poor'. It differs from the narrow definition of poverty orientation, which implies that this claim is only fulfilled if the 'poorest of the poor' are also reached (something that appears too ambitious for measures in the field of production at least as long as poverty, or impoverishment, can still be regarded as a mass phenomenon). Finally, poverty orientation does not mean that support must be directed exclusively at 'poor groups'; care should, however, be taken that the involvement of privileged groups is not at the cost of the disadvantaged.


see (Project) Planning Matrix


In the context of planning, pre-conditions are prior conditions that must be fulfilled before a development project or programme is started or implemented; typically financial or other contributions. The required preconditions for starting up a project or programme (e.g. the necessary budget and / or personnel), or for its implementation with co-operating partners (e.g. partner agencies having taken the obligation of financial or other contributions), often pose threats. Unless those preconditions are realised a project or programme cannot be started or must not be continued. It is not wise to confuse such preconditions with assumptions / risks for attaining outputs/results.

see also Frame conditions


A process of arranging items to be attended to in order of their relative importance, used in decision-making in order to come to a conclusion as to how to intervene (e.g. in an alternatives analysis), what to focus on, or what resources to allocate where. Different prioritisation methods can be used:

  1. Scaling of each alternative with respect to criteria (e.g. within a scale of -2 up to +2 for negative, neutral or positive impacts). \
  2. Scaling with weighted criteria. Not all criteria may seem to be equally important. In that case they can be given different weights according to importance. Then the resulting points made during scaling would have to multiplied by the weight of the respective criteria to arrive at the total number of points for each alternative.


In the context of development "problem" has a strict, technical definition. It refers to a deviation between an actual situation (e.g. of poverty) and people's (or societal) goals with regard to the sustainable satisfaction of people's needs, i.e. a targeted situation (e.g. as stated in objectives). Problems are unsatisfied needs, they are undesirable conditions of life (with respect to people) or undesirable conditions of being (with respect to institutions or ecosystems), negative conditions which exist instead of desired and realistically achievable positive conditions. Problems cannot be perceived if there is not at the same time a feeling or an idea that a possibility for improvement, an objective exists. A problem is not the absence of a preconceived solution. For the purposes of analysis, problems differentiated from constraints, (= factors which cause or nurture problems).

Problem analysis

Problem analysis is a systematic procedure to assess the problem perceptions of relevant actors and people concerned in a certain context and to identify the cause-effect-interrelations between the problems and their causes. It may be facilitated using visual means e.g. a cause-effect tree (problem tree).

Problem focus

An orienting principle for an integrated development approach which focuses on problem-causing factors and on problem-solving potentials (instead of a comprehensive analysis of the whole situation and of any possible potentials). Only constraints which pertain to a particular problem are included; not every constraint in the context of an issue must be taken into the analysis. The scope is narrowed, whilst the focus is concentrated.

The starting point of a development intervention in this sense is a problem experienced by the people. It follows then that planning is a process of identifying ways and means to overcome problems; by finding leverage points to address identified constraints.

Problem tree

During the process of problem analysis, the factors related to a certain problem are structured in a diagram in the form of a cause-effect tree of which the causing factors form the roots while the resulting problems form the branches.

In general, there are two ways to arrive at a problem tree: (1) in a planning workshop with all relevant role players. The term "starter problem" is used to describe one problem in the centre of the problem field, used for group dynamics reasons to facilitate the start of a problem analysis; (2) through an analysis carried out by a core team of analysts, based on the results of a number of problem identification procedures carried out on various levels and with various resource persons. In-between-steps are required to come from problem identification to an aggregate problem tree. A core problem is the starting point here.


A process is a series of actions that produce a change or development, or, are carried out to achieve a particular result or product. A product can also occur naturally; and as a naturally occurring series of events, a process is the development or growth which produced the product. How something becomes/became what it is, is often more interesting and important than the product or outcome (becoming as opposed to being).


Profit is the income which accrues to the entrepreneur after payment of all costs. Hence profitability of an enterprise is an economic feasibility figure which calculates the ratio of profit to capital inputs, thus determining the profitability of the capital input.

Profitability is measured by the entrepreneur's profit margin and therefore does not depend alone on the efficiency of the production process but also on the distribution of the earnings obtained between the entrepreneur and the employees.


see Development programme


see Development project

Project Cycle Management (PCM)

PCM is an orientation framework for the management of target-group-oriented development co- operation. It is used to assist agencies to successfully plan and steer development projects. In PCM, the procedure involved in preparing and implementing a development project is given a structure which combines development policy orientation with an approach for professional management. It specifically defines roles and responsibilities and the stages in project management from design and planning through to evaluation.

(Project) Planning Matrix (PPM)

A summary of the intervention strategy - consisting of objectives - together with associated indicators and means of verification, and important assumptions, of a development project or -programme, arranged in matrix form showing the logical links between the elements (hence the term logical framework approach (LFA)). As such the PPM documents the outcome of planning.

Promotion of self help organisations

See Self-help promotion

Public meetings

In the development context, guided and structured discussions of problems, problem-causing factors, priorities and objectives, useful for community-level and target-groups; suitable for getting problem-perceptions, priorities and objectives of those who attend a meeting and speak out.


A technical term for the statement in the intervention strategy of a logical frameworks plan which describes the changes in behaviour of the envisaged beneficiaries or related structures, to be brought about by the utilisation of whatever the development project or -programme has to offer (i.e. outputs and related activities). The purpose states new conditions/qualities or capacities achieved when target groups adopt/utilise the output(s) of the development project or -programme. Together with the goal, the purpose constitutes the plan's development hypothesis by indicating expected impact.

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Rating or positioning on a scale, a method used as part of the Participatory Rapid Appraisal (PRA) tool box, to investigate decision-making preferences and why people make choices. Ranking processes in PRA include preference ranking (ranks items through paired comparisons), direct matrix ranking (ranks decision criteria), and wealth ranking (investigates perceptions of wealth, a rapid way of assessing the population's social strata).


Coherent spatial unit above local and below national level (e.g. district, province). The characteristics of a region are homogeneity (ecologically, culturally), functional interrelations and administrative boundaries (these constitute criteria for categorisation). The size of a planning region should be small enough to allow participation and have a high degree of homogeneity; and big enough to reach many with given planning capacity and for interlinkages.

Regional planning

Regional planning aims at idebtifying interrelated measures relative to the problems within one region. The concept of integrated rural development stresses the necessity of a region as adequate intermediate unit to interlink bottom-up and top-down planning and to reach more situation-specific approaches than national sectorial planning. In comparison to community-level planning this concept allows the use of more synergetic effects and linkages.


The likelihood of a development intervention being repeated; for example, projects should be designed to be replicated on a scale that is defined by the general problem situation.


A tool for organising and comparing data in potentials / potentiality analysis, the resource-demand matrix interlinks resources and demanded goods in order to identify income-generation support. Resources include natural resources and labour potentials (already being utilised and un-/under-utilised). Demanded goods include those in short supply and those imported from elsewhere, but likely to be replaced by local production. The expansion potential for processing, and potentials for trade are included. Figures (quantity, quality, location, timing) used in the matrix to specify potentials do not need to be exact, but are the basis for sound professional guess-timates. The purpose of the resource demand matrix is to provide reasonable ideas for problem-solving, not to provide the basis for exact production planning. Potential sectors suggested need to be further analysed for economic and ecological viability, and social relevance/appropriateness.

Resource management

Resource Management is an approach that strives to reach sustainable natural resource utilisation through a combination of resource utilisation and resource conservation. Resource management is an integral part of a multi-sectoral and regional development approach. It is first of all a technical task, involving resource utilisation techniques which can help to make most effective and efficient use of scarce resources (e.g. soil and water conservation technology, mining technologies). The technical task is to make maximum use of the existing regenerative potentials of an eco-system instead of just extracting the outputs of eco-systems. But resource management is much more than only a technical task. It requires comprehensive, multi-sectoral, regional, participatory, target group and gender-specific approaches.


Sources for economic wealth or support. In logical frameworks planning this is a technical term used to specify the goods, items, equipment, funds, personnel and skills necessary to perform activities in a development project or -programme. In the project planning matrix (PPM) these can be listed in the two columns next to activities but appear in more detail in the Plan of Operations (PlanOps). Also loosely referred to as inputs or costs. Management has the task to allocate resources, according to budgets and plans.


see Outputs/Results


See Assumptions

Role players

see Participants

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A non-consumptive utilisation of income, i.e. both putting aside for later use and immediate use for investment. The purchase of means of production from the current income of a respective period represents savings (and at the same time an investment).

Secondary data review

A method of social research involving assembling and analysing existing (official) records, census reports, survey documents, maps, photographs, intervention documents, etc.

Self help

Everything that people do in order to improve their situation. Self-help takes place mainly in an individual form or within household or family units.

Self-help organisation

An alliance /association of people with a common purpose to improve their situation by joint activities. It is useful to differentiate between self help organisations in the narrow sense = formalised alliances, and self help groupings = informal alliances. The reasons why people organise in self help organisations are either economic (economies of scale, access to investment, markets, services) or political (protection/ cover, representation of interest) nature. The terms people's organisation, grassroots organisation, and community-based organisation are synonymous.

In the context of development interventions, organisations established and/or maintained by target groups of a development intervention for the purposes of enhancing their productive and creative capacities. A programme may enter into a partnership with such a self-initiative: then it becomes an implementing organisation of a development- project or programme.

Self-help organisations, promotion of

Measures to support self help organisations, used in the organisational development context; promotion of SHOs is a specialised task and is carried out by specialised promotion agencies.

Self-help promotion

Self-help promotion is a guiding principle of development- with the motto "Help for self help". This emphasises supporting people's own efforts supplementarily (and thereby stimulating them), but not replacing them (hence following the subsidiarity principle).


A way of determining membership of a target group in order to achieve target group orientation. Measures are designed which suit the specific condition of a certain group (the desired target group) without excluding others from those measures (and without needing to name the members of a target group explicitly.) In contrast to administrative categorisation this way of targeting is politically and socially less problematic, less intervention driven and less bureaucratic.

Semi-structured interviewing

A method of social research conducted by means of informal discussions based on a flexible checklist of topics. Interviewing can be done with individuals or in groups, while taking casual notes.

Service agency

Agencies, institutions, organisations of government or outside government (i.e. non-governmental organisations) existing to deliver a service (e.g. primary health care, libraries, agricultural extension, literacy training) in the form of a programme.

Single-line organisation

A type of organisation with only one line of instruction and responsibility between superior and subordinate units. The advantages of this structure are: straightforward demarcation of competence, clarity, security; the disadvantages are: wearisome official channels, overburdening on top, bureaucratic inflexibility.

See also Multi-line organisation, Matrix organisation


The actual state of affairs in a developmental issue being analysed; in which problems exist relating to a lack of basic needs (a situation of poverty).

Situation analysis

Situation analysis is a process which precedes planning; coming early on in the design process; and can be seen as the first step in planning. Situation analysis involves scanning or analysing a particular (developmental) problem situation, in most cases related to a region (suggesting geographical boundaries and coherence based on political, topographical but also economic, ecological or population factors).

Situation analysis proceeds from the point of view of those directly affected by the problems. It consists of a participants analysis, a problem analysis and objectives analysis, as well as an analysis of the project environment in order to define risks or assumptions. It can also consist of a target groups analysis. The purpose is to fully understand the context and problems in order to be able to formulate improvements or solutions adjusted to the situation. It demands a communicative approach emphasising participation and may make use of techniques such as Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA).

Information from a regional situation analysis can form the basis of regional development planning. However, as a rule it is not sufficient for this. A mix of both analytical /statistical methods of investigation and participatory methods of appraisal are required. Statistical or analytical methods have comparatively higher importance at regional level.


The means of solving problems. Ideas for possible solutions may come from research, own experiences, experiences elsewhere.

Spatial principle approach

See Development from above / development from below


see Participants

Starter problem

see Problem tree

Strategic objectives/strategy objectives

see Objectives

Structural adjustment

An economic programme started by the World Bank in 1980 to stimulate growth in developing countries, with the two main strategy pillars of: reduction of state expenditure (the trimming down even affected basic services), devaluation of the local currency in order to make export production competitive (which led to high rates of inflation due to import dependency). Other programme components depend on specific situations in the countries (e.g. establishment of a central bank, deregulation of internal trade, introduction of value-added tax, etc.). All measures were oriented towards liberalisation and the institution of free market systems according to neo-classical theory.


see Activities


A principle of social doctrine with its origins in Catholic social ethics, which holds that all social bodies exist for the sake of the individual so that what individuals are able to do, society should not take over, and what small societies can do, larger societies should not take over. Applied in development, the principle holds that what people are capable of doing for their own survival and betterment should not be taken over by a development agent. This refers to all aspects of individual and societal life: the ability to fulfil own needs and identify deficiencies, to solve problems, to organise, and to handle conflicts, etc.. Help or self-help must be subsidiary: only what is beyond people's own capabilities and requires an external intervention, should be taken up by a development agent.

In political systems the term has come to refer to the principle of devolving decisions to the lowest level. Decisions over the use of public funds, institutionalised access to such funds, decisions on policies and sectors should be at the level of those concerned. For example, if communities (on average) have sufficient numbers of children to warrant a primary school, primary education (and its funding) should be on the communal level; similarly secondary education on district level, and tertiary education on regional/provincial level. National level educational institutions may have only regulatory functions to ensure compatibility of education processes.

see also Decentralisation, Devolution


A financial aid, grant or contribution, supplied from public coffers to the corporate sector / an enterprise, for a variety of reasons: "infant subsidies" to encourage and establish new enterprises; subsidies for periods of testing innovations; subsidies for positive external effects like reduction of unemployment; subsidies for the rehabilitation of degraded natural resources; subsidies for emergency cases like recovery from cyclones, epidemics; compensatory subsidies in case of competing imports that are subsidised in their countries of origin.

Subsistence needs

see Basic needs


In development this refers to the ability of the effects of a development intervention (e.g. project) to maintain themselves or keep going without continued inputs from external sources. Hence the capacities of people and their societies to maintain the targeted living conditions under given natural and economic conditions (which may change), must prevail. Thus sustainability requires maintaining the ecological balance and prevention of the degradation of natural resources (ecological sustainability), production promotion interventions adapted to foreseeable market conditions (economic sustainability), and the capacity of target groups and / or the organisations which provide them with services to maintain the necessary conditions for the improvements achieved, without external support (institutional / organisational sustainability).

Thus, the point is not (necessarily) the long-term maintenance of the activities implemented or initiated by an intervention, but rather the maintenance of the level of objectives achieved (for example of improved or stabilised living conditions). In view of social and economic dynamics, it cannot be the preservation of a certain "end of intervention status" (e.g. a certain production structure) which is aimed for, but the preservation of problem-solving capacities (adjustment of the production structure to the prevailing conditions).

Sustainable development

An approach to development based on the principle that all economic development depends on the natural resource base of the earth and a fair share of all people in the use of these resources. Development must therefore meet human needs without depleting resources or irreparably damaging the systems which produce those resources, or exploiting other countries and their resources. Maintaining ecological compatible production and ecological balance in order that future generations may also meet their needs is a central tenet of this approach.

Systems approach / Systems perspective

Systems are sets of elements or factors which are interrelated in a systematic manner. Characteristics of systems are: interrelatedness, balance seeking, embeddedness, equifinality and sub-optimisation. Adopting a systems perspective involves considering all relevant factors and their interrelation.

In the development context, a systems approach is useful in any analysis - via the tool of a systems model charting the interrelationships between frame conditions, resources, activities, outputs and the satisfaction of needs. Note that a comprehensive systems analysis (working with all factors and their interconnections) would not be a feasible basis for planning as interconnections between factors are typically too complex; as a result it is useful to select relevant levels or sections of the entire system for analysis. Breaking complexity down analytically without simplification is the approach.

See also Problem focus

Systems model

A modular representation of a complex whole or phenomenon, made up of its interconnected parts and showing the relationship between them.

SWOT-Method (Successes, Weaknesses, Opportunities, Threats)

A method for a (subjectively felt) appraisal of successes, weaknesses, opportunities and threats. SWOT is a meaningful approach for self-evaluation of for example (self help) organisations. Its use in strategic planning is limited owing to its inaccuracy.

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Table format

see Tabular representation

Tabular representation

Arrangement of interconnected facts or figures in a table with two axis and columns for the purposes of comparison. Used in alternatives analysis.

Target group(s)

Those social groups within whose domain the changes defined in a development intervention (development project or -programme) are supposed to take place. The target groups use the goods and/or services delivered, and experience the resultant impact, or enjoy the resultant benefits of a development intervention. Note however that the beneficiary group of an intervention may be wider or narrower than those targeted (e.g. a project targeting rural women would benefit their children). It is useful to differentiate between (1) direct target groups (those people towards measures are directed), (2) indirect target groups (those people who may benefit from indirect effects of measures), (3) implementary target groups ( those people who do not belong to the target population, but are supported because of their strategic importance in relation to the direct target group), (4) target groups for development programmes (subgroups of the population) and (5) target groups for development projects (above all organisations; the population in general only in the frame of pilot schemes as direct target groups, otherwise as indirect target groups)

Target groups must form part of the participants in a development project or -programme but among the participants may be others who are not directly targeted. In a project planning matrix (PPM) the purpose states the utilisation by target groups of the outputs of the development project or -programme.

Target group analysis

An empirical analysis of target groups, their perception of their problems, what changes they desire (their objectives) and their scope of action, conducted during the preparation stage of a development project or -programme. Such an analysis does not replace participation, but provides data and information to design a relevant participatory approach (e.g. gender sensitive).

A target groups analysis usually forms part of the situation analysis and participants analysis. A useful tool for target groups analysis is the systems model.

Target group orientation

Target group orientation is a methodological approach to, and not merely a principle of development practice. In development design the concern is to move away from the traditional approach which sought to transfer pre-conceived innovations to people. A target group oriented approach involves the adjustment of measures to people, instead of selecting appropriate people who fit (predetermined) measures.

Target population

The sector of the total population which belongs to the envisaged beneficiaries of development interventions. In the frame of the original concept of poverty orientation the target population is everybody below the poverty line. In the frame of rural development the target population is the mass of rural small scale producers and traders, farm workers, unemployed and landless people.

See also Target group(s).

Technical co-operation

The support of people and organisations in developing countries with technical, economic and organisational skills and expertise in the context of an aid agreement between donors and developing countries..

Third sector

see Civil society

Third World

A term coined in the late 1950s to describe the decolonising industrially underdeveloped and economically weak countries of Asia, Africa, Latin America and Oceania (excluding Australia and New Zealand). These countries are home to 80% of the world's population but generate less than 30% of industrial production. The terms First World and Second World described the West European and North American and Soviet or Eastern blocs respectively, and were used to delineate the Cold War power blocs and the ex-colonial countries located between the two. Since the demise of the Soviet bloc these terms have been virtually replaced by South (developing countries) and North (industrialised, developed countries).

see also Developing countries

Top-down planning

A planning paradigm oriented towards national goals, based on professional/ specialist knowledge. The "top-down" approach to development is to be complemented by bottom-up planning.

see also Bottom-up planning


The "cross-checking" of sources of information. Triangulation demands that every issue be looked at from different angles and different approaches, by different actors.

Trickle across concept

The hypothesis that benefits from measures targeting (male) heads of households reach women and children. This was disproved: the trickle across between genders does not take place. One reason for this is that the "western" concept of "household" does not correspond to gender roles in other cultures.

Trickle down concept

The hypothesis that investment and aid directed at few "advanced" or emergent people of developing countries, and the establishment of high tech solutions, would eventually benefit the poor in those countries. The theory has been discredited in the face of the accumulation of wealth so generated in the hands of economic and political elites.


All production sold by a business or sector within one year. Turnover equals gross output minus changes in inventory.

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Underdeveloped countries

See Developing countries

Used in alternatives analysis to compare various solutions using criteria. It involves assessment by scoring and weighting criteria in a table format.

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Value added

Value created within a business or by an economic activity within one year, above the value of products and services purchased from other business or inputs in an economic activity. (If one would count the gross outputs of all business the bought-in materials and services of other businesses would be double counted as they form part of the output of the supplying business.) The value added thus is the contribution of a business or sector to the gross domestic product.

Vertical logic

Term used to describe the relationship between the levels/ hierarchies of strategic objectives in an intervention strategy of a project planning matrix (PPM); and the logic of interrelation between various levels of the strategic objectives and the corresponding levels in the assumptions column.


Capability of becoming practicable, useful; developing further.

see also Feasibility


Technique of displaying visually the discussion or proceedings of a workshop or meeting, using for example the Metaplan cards and pinboard method, or mind-mapping.

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see Plan of Operations (PlanOps)


A meeting for concerted discussion or activity e.g. planning, learning, reflecting. (For planning, workshop participants may represent affected institutions as well as groups of envisaged beneficiaries which are related to the development project or -programme to be planned.) Proceedings are usually conducted by an external facilitator, using various visualisation techniques to track and document discussion e.g. Metaplan, mind-mapping.

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